The greenlip mussel studies found below clearly show how the lipids found in these mussels contribute to reducing inflammation. I get quite a bit of mail from around the world asking if there is any scientific evidence regarding the many benefits of taking greenlip mussel oil, and so here is a page where you can find the study summaries as well as links to the complete study.
You'll find here abstracts of some of the scientific studies done in
recent years. Some of it isn't very easy to understand, but if you're
interested in reading the actual science, these papers are very
interesting and show the real power of greenlip mussel oil and omega-3s.
We will be adding more greenlip mussel studies as they are
published. Comments in brackets are from Green-Lipped-Mussel-Oil.com
Patients seek GLMO in order to avoid side effects of NSAIDs, greenlip mussel study shows
25 January 2008 Systematic review of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel) in the treatment of osteoarthritis Publication: QJM, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcm108
Authors: S. Brien, et al. Department of Primary Care, University of Southampton, UK
Abstract:Complementary treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are sought by patients for symptomatic relief and to avoid the iatrogenic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. [Iatrogenic effects are a medical disorder caused by the diagnosis, manner, or treatment of a physician. In this case the authors are referring to the effects of NSAIDs.] Read complete article
Greenlip mussel study from RMIT University identified omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) with significant anti-inflammatory (AI) activity
1 August 2007 Novel anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Publication: Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Aug;147(4):645-56. Epub 2007 Apr 14
Authors:Treschow AP, et al. Natural Products Research Group, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083, Australia.
Abstract: The present study has identified in the marine mollusc, Perna canaliculus, an homologous series of novel omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) with significant anti-inflammatory (AI) activity. The novel compounds may be biologically significant as AI agents, as a result of their in vitro inhibition of lipoxygenase products of the AA pathway. Read complete article
Greenlip mussel studies have shown omega-3 to be critical to joint, respiratory, and cardiovascular health, and optimum cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride levels
11 June 2007 Immunomodulation of murine collagen-induced arthritis by N, N-dimethylglycine and a preparation of Perna canaliculus Publication: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Jun 11;7:20
Authors: Lawson BR, et al. Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA. email@example.com
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its accepted animal model, murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), are classic autoimmune inflammatory diseases which require proinflammatory cytokine production for pathogenesis. We and others have previously used N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and extracts from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus (Perna) as potent immunomodulators to modify ongoing immune and/or inflammatory responses. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that Perna [green-lipped mussel oil], and perhaps DMG, may be useful supplements to the treatment of RA in humans.
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Greenlip mussel study shows beneficial effect on degenerative joint disease
1 June 2006 Clinical efficacy and tolerance of an extract of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) in dogs presumptively diagnosed with degenerative joint disease Publication: N Z Vet J. 2006 Jun;54(3):114-8
Authors: Pollard B, et al. Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of an extract of green-lipped mussel (GLME) in the management of mild-to-moderate degenerative joint disease (DJD) in dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: GLME had a beneficial effect on the clinical signs of dogs presumptively diagnosed with mild-to-moderate DJD. Long-term therapy may be required before improvement is apparent.
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Greenlip mussel preparation prevents the development of autoimmune diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in laboratory animals
13 January 2006 In vitro modulation of inflammatory cytokine and IgG levels by extracts of Perna canaliculus Publication: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Jan 13;6:1
Authors: Mani S, et al. Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Inflammation is a predominant characteristic of autoimmune diseases which is characterized by the increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Soon to be published work from our laboratory has shown that ingestion of Perna canaliculus prevents the development of autoimmune diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in laboratory animals. CONCLUSION: We have successfully demonstrated modulation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase enzymes and immunoglobulins by our in-house laboratory preparations of Perna canaliculus, whereby suggesting an immunomodulatory role of Perna canaliculus [green-lipped mussel oil or extract] in regulating inflammation.Read complete article
Dietary management may help reduce or eliminate the need for conventional arthritis drugs, says greenlip mussel study
1 June 2002 Improvement of Arthritic Signs in Dogs Fed Green-Lipped Mussel (Perna canaliculus) Publication: The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 132:1634S-1636S, June 2002
Authors: Tiffany Linn Bierer, et al.
Abstract: Dietary factors can potentially modify some of the underlying processes involved in arthritis, including modulation of the inflammatory response, provision of nutrients for cartilage repair and protection against oxidative damage. Where effective, dietary management may help to reduce or eliminate the need for conventional drugs, some of which are associated with adverse secondary effects. Shellfish supplements have been used as a traditional remedy for arthritis in humans and, in recent years, interest has focused on the potential benefits of a nutritional supplement prepared from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus.
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Numerous greenlip mussel studies have linked the omega-3 in greenlip mussels to measurable health benefits
1 September 2000 Anti-inflammatory effects of a stabilized lipid extract of Perna canaliculus Publication: Allerg Immunol (Paris). 2000 Sep;32(7):272-8
Authors: Halpern GM. University of California, USA.
Abstract: A lipid-rich extract, prepared by supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction of freeze-dried stabilized NZ green-lipped mussel powder (Lyprinol) has shown significant anti-inflammatory (AI) activity when given to animals and humans. Clinical studies, either controlled or randomized, have demonstrated very significant AI activity in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. Lyprinol is a reproducible, stable source of bioactive lipids with much greater potency than plant/marine oils currently used as nutritional supplements to ameliorate signs of inflammation.
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GLME can inhibit experimentally-induced inflammation, greenlip mussel study reports
1 May 1993 Anti-inflammatory activity of glycogen extracted from Perna canaliculus (NZ green-lipped mussel). Publication: Agents Actions. 1993;38 Spec No:C139-42.
Authors: Miller TE. Department of Medicine, University of Auckland School of Medicine, New Zealand.
Abstract: Previous laboratory based investigations of a commercially prepared freeze-dried extract of the NZ green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) showed that the material had the capacity to inhibit experimentally induced inflammation. The activity was thought to reside within an aqueous fraction containing high molecular weight material, possibly a polysaccharide. In the present study, a polysaccharide (glycogen) has been extracted from Perna canaliculus and its anti-inflammatory activity examined in an attempt to characterise further the high molecular weight components of this mollusc.
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More Green-lipped Mussel Oil Studies and Research
Here is where we are placing more studies done on green-lipped mussel oil.
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